Elizabeth Z Pineda
“I use a combination of photography and painting to visualize the subconscious nature of humanity. I am fascinated by choice making and the paradoxes of consciousness. Choices ripple out to affect our lives in ways that are not always clear or understood, but are often felt intrinsically. I turn to the beasts, forms, and textures of the natural world in my work, and use these symbols to reveal secret dramas and dichotomies, and illuminate the natures that position humanity within the microcosm and macrocosm of the universe.” --Benjamin Timpson
Benjamin Timpson is currently the Studio Coordinator, Photography and New Media at AndersonRanch Arts Center in Colorado. Ben has an ability to work across several mediums adding to the depth of his work. The topics he works with, specifically in his Metamorphosis, About Face, and Human Transplant projects have a profundity that is not only important, it is imperative to be exposed to artists whose voices talk about themes that people turn a blind eye to. I feel strongly that artists and students have much to gain from his influence, voice and unique perspective. This is why I’ve decided to do my research project on Ben Timpson.
In his “End of the Roll” series, Ben has created a body of work that speaks to the transformation of photography from analog to the digital format and wonders if one is better than the other. He states, “Photography is consumed faster than any other medium. Thanks to technology, we are exposed to hundreds upon hundreds of photographs every day. Photography is now a language and a survival tool for communication. My photographic series explores and symbolizes the transformation of analog photography to digital photography. A tearing and ripping effect, the sun and the moon, polar opposites and one who needs another. A balance through chaos is formed. Using analog slides (Ektachrome), and natural detritus I form compositions on a light table 1” x 2” with glass slides that are then photographed and enlarged.” (i)
“Daily Head Transplant” delves into social and perhaps political issues. The work begins with Ben making a self-portrait, a head-shot image. Using available software and laser tools, Ben takes his likeness, and makes a laser etched “head” out of acrylic. He then slices, his head, and imprints photographic stills that he has taken from media sources that speak to the vast volume of imprinted information one receives from the media. This work questions the effect that the abundance of information one sees through television, and other devices, specifically news derived, that intrinsically delivers one-sided messages, and their effect on the self. Ben is currently working with his students and teaching them the process of constructing their own heads. The information the students will imprint on the head "slices" will be of their own choosing. However, this time the stills that get etched onto the slices will also be transferred onto plates that can be printed using printmaking techniques. The prints will add another layer of information to the work as they will be displayed alongside the "head" structures.
In “About Face” an impressive body of work, that once again embraces digital technology, yet is rooted in the medium’s historical beginnings brings over 300 16x20 large format negative portraits that Ben made with a camera he constructed himself. The intent of the work is to embrace people’s humanity by removing clues of ethnicity and or race in the images by leaving them in the negative state. These images engage the viewer directly, since they have to actively participate using their phone devices in order to “see” the likeness of the sitter. “This intentional requirement directly engages the viewer with the work. Looking becomes an active experience. The phone acts like a photographer’s loupe, a tool for exploring the negative print and decoding the portrait. The installation of negative prints functions as a collective of presences, each one in dialogue with the other. However, it is not possible to see all the work at once through a smartphone. This is another intentional aspect of the work, one that forces an exploration of each individual alone and separate. It requires the viewer to scan the surface of the print incrementally, like an investigator moving through the woods in the dark of the night, flashlight in hand. The work becomes an opportunity to explore the topography of the human face with the intent of uniting humans through portraiture and allowing the viewer an opportunity to really “see”. (ii)
Ben’s “Metamorphosis” work addresses Native American Women abuse, which is a topic with staggering numbers, yet few people know about it. Ben’s work is an intricate, almost reverent gathering of (safe-sourced) butterfly wings, of which he carefully takes small squares, resembling the pixels in a digital photographic image, and with which, he constructs the likeness of women who have suffered abuses, sexual and domestic, and in some cases, women who have lost their lives. This work is truly inspiring, because he is dealing with much heavier issues and working on an intensely personal level by turning the lens on his own personal culture and background. The symbolism, attention to detail, and reverence with which he approaches this issue is beyond moving. Ben carefully selects each small piece of butterfly wing and one by one lays them on a piece of glass that is 4 x 5 inches long. This size he chooses to once point to the traditional photographic medium, and a size that is important since it references medium format cameras, and it was also one widely used to make portraits. Of the work Timpson states, "I am inspired by nature and feel compelled to tell the story of these women through the symbolic nature of the butterfly wing. The butterfly is a representation of metamorphosis, fragility, and hope. In tribes of the American Southwest, the butterfly is revered and respected. Conceptually, I use the butterfly as a catalyst. It is my hope that this series brings awareness to a very important issue through beauty and change.” (iii)
After witnessing Benjamin Timpson’s work I felt deeply moved and wanted to share it with everyone else I knew. I feel even more grateful that I had the incredible opportunity to meet this amazing artist.
The future library is a project started in Norway which won’t reach fruition for one hundred years. It starts with a plot of a hundred trees planted in 2014 which, once they’ve grown, will become paper for a series of a hundred books. A manuscript from one of the most influential writers is chosen once a year to be sealed and left unread until the year 2114.
This idea of slowing down the insemination of information to match the growth of the trees used to distribute them puts into question the modern ideals of mass acceleration and asks us to consider consumption and creation on a wider scale. The books written for this library will not be read in the lifetimes of authors, many of the people currently following the progress of the project or even the original creators of the project. In a time where the future of books, trees and civilized society are not guaranteed, this website and a hundred saplings in Norway has people considering a brighter future even though they might not be able to see it themselves.
While this library is considered the most secretive library, most of that title is earned because it simply doesn’t exist yet. The Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum might possibly be the most secretive library which currently exists. Being the private archives of the Vatican, the secrecy surrounding them is greatly exaggerated by conspiracy theorists but not entirely unfounded. Much of the archives are private, aren’t properly indexed and are technically only fully available to the pope, there are reading rooms available to visiting scholars and guided tours for visitors. The process for accessing the archives are rather difficult to navigate. Only accredited researchers are allowed to read anything from the archives and even they are only three articles which they must read under supervision and a time limit. The archives are said to contain over 75,000 codices from over twelves centuries.
Though some libraries are held secret by those who are either concerned by conservation or are waiting until the right moment, others are simply lost and rediscovered. The Dunhuang library on the edge of the gobi desert had been sitting in a cave for possibly over 900 years when it was discovered in the 1900’s. It holds paintings and manuscripts from over seventeen languages, many of which are now rare or entirely lost. Currently, the British museum is executing the International Dunhuang Project to digitally archive the entire collection, making the ancient scripts available to scholars and linguists worldwide.
By: Alison Sigala
Since long before the invention of the printing press, bookmakers have used the techniques of illumination and rubrication to add artistic embellishment to a text. Both practices added beauty to a book and clarity to its meaning. Especially after printed books became prominent, rubrication and illumination provided uniqueness to each copy of a text. Rubrication indicates important points and guides a reader with headings, and chapter indicators. Illumination illustrates the ideas and beautifies the page.
Rubrication comes from the Latin word rubrico, meaning “to color red”. It is the art of emphasizing certain ideas by using red ink for those specific phrases, words, or letters. This design choice effectively makes those words stand out from the rest of the page, letting the readers know what they should pay attention to. Before printed books, a scribe would hand write pages of text, leaving out spaces for a rubricator to fill in later. Scribes would scribble notes for the rubricator in the margins. Sometimes the scribe would rubricate their own texts, in which case notes were not necessary. After 1440, when books began being printed, spaces were left in the typesetting for rubrication, which then could be done either by print or by hand. Often it was easier to have someone write in the rubrication. The Gutenberg Bible employed both methods of rubrication. Earlier editions of it had the red words printed, but that technique was dropped in favor of rubrication by hand.
Rubrication was especially common in religious texts like Bibles, and liturgy for mass. Key verses were written in red, and large red calligraphic initials were drawn at the start of chapters. In liturgy, red was often used to distinguish the clergy’s part from the congregation’s part in the mass or church service. The start of a new chapter or section or subject was also commonly signaled by a red header. Some mass-produced Bibles now still use the visual cues of rubrication, emphasizing Jesus’s words, or theological notes, or chapter numbers in red. The extensive use of rubrication as a means of organization and headings eventually led to “rubric” being associated with headers in general, and “rubrication” of text in colors other than red.
Illumination goes above and beyond rubrication. While it does embellish text at times, it usually covers the whole page with detailed colorful images. The drawings, or Illuminations, can be an elaborate initial or a full page picture, or simply floral designs in the margins. The label “illumination” specifically refers to the reflective shiny quality of illustrations containing gold or silver leaf, but even works lacking in precious metal leaf can fall under the “illuminated” category. Like rubrication, the use of gold leaf was very prominent in Bibles. Both illumination and rubrication are used to add emphasis to the first word of a chapter or section, but an illuminated letter typically contains far more detail than a rubricated one, and can contain any colors, preferably in conjunction with gold leaf. Illuminations often serve to illustrate a text, depicting its meaning with figurative and abstract imagery.
“Illuminations and Rubrications” Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Educator Programs. https://www.hrc.utexas.edu/educator/modules/gutenberg/invention/illuminations/
“Rubrication” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubrication
“Rubrication” History Graphic Design, Graphic Renaissance. http://www.historygraphicdesign.com/a-graphic-renaissance/printing-comes-to-europe/12-rubrication
“Gutenberg Bible” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutenberg_Bible
“Rubrication, calligraphy” J.E. Luebering, Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/rubrication
Cyanotypes were invented in 1842 by astronomer, photographer and chemist John Hershel. It was said that he “could have invented photography” if he had bothered to. A majority of the photo processes used during this time were silver based processes, the cyanotype however is not. The process uses a mix of Ammonium Iron Citrate and potassium ferricyanide to create a photosensitive solution that can be applied to anything capable of absorbing it. Then exposing this to ultraviolet light with a negative image with create a positive image, after this exposure the object will need to be washed with water. Anna Atkins is credited as the first person to ever make photo books when using cyanotypes to document botanicals entitled British Algae Vol.1. She is also most likely the first woman to ever make a photograph. She was born in 1799, and is recognized as important to both the history of botany as well as photography. In the 1840s the process is rarely used outside of botanicals. Cyanotypes later started to be used by engineers and architects to make blueprints. Before the cyanotype these sketches were copied by hand. In the mid 20th century, zenographic prints finally replaced blueprints, and now digital prints have become most common.
I became interested in this process because of the artist Annie Lopez Rogers who is also based in Phoenix. Her family has been in Arizona since 1871, and like my family, her’s was a part of the population who the border crossed over after the Mexican American war. Her work focuses a lot on that and the history of Mexicans in Phoenix. She oftentimes uses cyanotypes on tamale wrapping paper. After SB1070 she constructed a both men and women's underwear out of cyanotypes made from her birth certificate and other documents from her childhood entitled I’ll Show You My Papers If You Show Me Yours.
I expected that I would find a large amount of contemporary artists who use cyanotypes in their work, but I had a hard time finding any others. I brought this up to photography students, who said that it is hard to use cyanotypes without being overly nostalgic or romanticizing a different time.I find myself agreeing with this, but I think that Annie Rogers uses the process in a way that is aware of the effect that the process carries with it. I think then when we’re talking about the darker parts of our history that it can be smart to use a medium with a nostalgic tie to it. It reminds me a bit of Mia Adams’ current work, where she tends to use almost over patriotic language and symbols to point towards the history of the United States.
Annie Lopez Rogers
Annie Lopez Rogers
Annie Lopez Rogers
Judith Scott was a fibers artist and was actively producing art from 1988 to 2005. She was born with Down Syndrome and became deaf through an illness in early childhood. She was institutionalized as a result of failing verbal aptitude tests and being disruptive in traditional classrooms. Scott's twin brought her home after the death of their parents and helped enroll her in her first formal art training in the mid-1980s when she enrolled at the Creative Growth Art Center. Scott quickly found her place in fibers and was a prolific artist producing over 200 works before her death in 2005.
Her early work explored two objects wrapped together, and later works became larger scale -- working with everyday objects and large totems. She never repeated a color scheme exactly and used a large range of colored and textured threads in her work. The wrapped fibers around the work create meaningful patterns and both visual and physical texture. In this way, she is able to elevate the objects. She transformed some objects by wrapping them with multiple layers and changing the form and other objects she celebrated the existing shape and structure.
She was labeled an outsider artist because she did not ever receive formal training and was only taught fibers late in her life. People have rejected that label because of the stigma that that title carries, but it is intended to celebrate the barriers that Scott had to overcome to work in a fine art environment. Scott's first exhibition was in 1999. Her works have been in installations all over the world and stay in permanent collections in the Brooklyn Art Museum, Museum of Modern Art, the American Visionary Art Museum, Museum of American Folk Art, Intuit: The Center for Intuitive and Outsider Art, Irish Museum of Modern Art, The Oakland Museum, L’Aracine Musee D’Art Brut, Art Brut Connaissance & Diffusion Collection, Collection de L'art Brut. She continued to work five days a week until she passed in 2005.
Artists website: http://www.creativegrowth.org/artists/judith-scott/
Works from: https://www.artsy.net/artist/judith-scott
Extra information: https://fraenkelgallery.com/artists/judith-scott
Judith Scott and context: http://strabic.fr/Judith-Scott-Quelques-objets-secrets
Movies: “What’s Under Your Hat?”
“Outsider: The Life and Art of Judith Scott”
By Hao Jiang
China's long feudal society has unprecedented persecution and repression against the personality psychology of people, especially women. This repressed mentality has become the best breeding ground for the birth of the "Fox Immortal" culture. In the feudal society, the fox was first loved by women and used it as a god to please the spouse. The fox's beautiful fur, small and lovely body and sly spleen are in the eyes of the ancients, and only a charming woman can compare with it. The fox also seems to represent a certain secretive spirit, especially the character psychology involving women.
The fox is most respected in the pre-Qin and Han dynasties, and is one of the four auspicious squads along with the dragon, unicorn and phoenix. In the stone carvings and brick paintings of the Han Dynasty, there are often nine-tailed foxes and white rabbits, dragonflies and bluebirds juxtaposed next to the Western Queen’s seat to show auspicious omen. Others concluded that the fox has three virtues: the color of the coat is soft, in line with the doctrine of the mean; the body is small and large, in line with the order of honor and humility; when you die, head toward your own cave, it is not forgetting the root. It can be inferred that the fox was very moisturized in the days of the summer solstice for more than two thousand years.
After the Han Dynasty, the status of Fox as auspicious descended sharply. The previous good words about the fox were gone, and the rest were all indecent words, such as suspicion, fox, and body odor, which soon became the base of the sinister word. In the long run, fox has become synonymous with the problem of life style, and has become a famous kinky beast.
Because of the decline of Taoism in the right way, there is a fascinating belief in the north of China, in order to beg the fox to bless the food year after year. There are also many folks who say that the fox is dismounting, that is, after the seven-year-old person is possessed by the fox, it can be predicted to be fierce.
The fox demon is suitable for being a human figure. There is a flaw in the characteristic place to limit her identity. The most recognizable symbol of the reincarnation of the fox is the three cockroaches on the body.
Regardless of men and women, there will be a very obvious sputum on the right clavicle, the right back is symmetrical with the front clavicle, and the most concealed one is the one on the right. These three skeletons will roughly form an equilateral triangle.
This is one of the most important features of the fox, but this feature is easy to identify, but it is very difficult to see clearly.
Fox reincarnation as a physical feature I found
1. The face is small and pointed, the eyes are big, and the gestures between the hands will make people feel very charming. With superb acting, it is difficult for you to understand what she is like, and the skin is white and not too thin.
2. The eyes are small, but very aura, and the eyelids are very bright, you will be attracted to her eyes in the first time. Very smart and good at expressing my own thinking.
3. Because the fox is born with an odor, so after becoming a person there will still be a taste. But this body odor is very fragrant, especially at the end of the limbs, this scent is emitted from the body.
4. The ear is also a little different from the average person, there will be a downward fold on the ear's ear. Because the fox originally became a human figure with long ears, it needs to be further cultivated to be the same as ordinary people, but it will leave some traces, so there will be a small fold.
The character of the fox fairy reincarnation I found
1. It's very convinced of Buddhism, the heart is very religious, but because of nature, so I like meat.
2. It's very like dogs, because the relationship between dogs and foxes is very good, so they will get along well with the dog, and will feed some stray dogs and give goodwill.
3. It's very familiar with other animals, get along well with the animals. But in addition to cats, cats and foxes are a pair of deadly enemies, and they instinctively resent each other.
4. It's very sleepy, because the fox likes to sleep, a little lazy feeling. Most of the time it is mysterious, you seem to never know her thoughts.
When I do art projects I tend to try and relay a message within my artwork. I do this for the most part because I’m usually a quiet person and often don’t connect with people about my feelings. I usually gravitate towards political artwork because there is a lot of things I learned as a adult about my culture I wish I knew before. Conceptually I tend to like political artist with backgrounds similar to me. One thing that I wish I could do more as a artist is put more effort into learning about the artist who I think share a connection with me. I want to learn about artist who are in my range of style like printmaking and artist who share my subject matter. I’ve found three new artist I’m learning about and want to research their topic and method of work.
First I really have grew interest in the artist Sandile Goje whom I can’t find a image on. Goje is a South African artist who uses relief printing for his art. Goje in his prints seemed to be about the intermingling of white and black Africans in South Cape. Or possibly the prints tells of modernism brought into the town. Technically the markings on Goje prints are outstanding as the only colors used are black and white. Two colors accomplish so much on the page like depth and line weight. I look further in to learning more about Sandile Goje.
The second artist I want to talk about is Amos P Kennedy. Amos is a African American poster and letterpress artist who I came to like. Amos work consist of phrases, proverbs and sayings. Amos uses post and posters from handset wood and metal type for his work which is then hand pressed. The posters are very colorful and sends a bright and clear message. I often try to do something of similar topic and when I see Amos prints I get inspired again. Amos method of overly printing text is a method I want to use someday in letterpress because it looks very promotional. The reason why I like this type of Printmaking is because you can do multiple prints and put them up all over your local area.
Lastly another artist that got my attention is Daniel Pressely from South Carolina. Coming from a tragic background Pressely art in contrast depicts people singing and dancing. His work consist of wood carving and painting. However looking at his carving I can only imagine what they would look like if printing onto a book or print. His work is fascinating and beautiful and leaves me with a impression of learning how to be more detailed in my work. His composition is something I should sought after also as I believe that something I neglect in my work.
Sandile Goje above
<Amos P Kennedy
I chose to do my research on the Gutenberg Bible; a book that revolutionized how the books we know and love today would be printed. An inventor by the name of Johann Gutenberg, born around 1398 in Mainz, Germany is credited with inventing and revolutionizing a new way of printing that would set future technology in motion. At this time in history, books were painstakingly being printed by hand.
Most large books were being hand written and smaller books and images were were carved into
wooden blocks and inked; both of which took upwards of months to years to create even the most
simple books. While not much is known about Johann Gutenberg’s early life or occupations, it is known that he moved in around the early 1430’s to Strasburg, Germany working as an inventor and learning new processes for polishing gemstones and making mirrors. He remained there for about a decade before returning to Mainz after running out of money. It was during this time in Mainz that Gutenberg approached a rich goldsmith and lawyer who would become very interested and fund his work. It is believed that this is the time when Gutenberg started experimenting with creating movable wood type. Individual letters that were hand carved into small wooden blocks that could be set up to print, taken down, and set up again to print in any arrangement desired. This, however proved to not be as reliable and Gutenberg soon moved to working with metal; a
skill that he undoubtedly fine tuned during his time in Strasburg. While areas such as Asia were already working with moveable type, this was an entirely new process in the Western Hemisphere.
In 1455, Gutenberg created the first book in Europe with moveable type, the Gutenberg Bible. During
this time, the majority of books printed were religious in nature, with the Latin Bible being the most
popular. The book was premiered and sold at the Frankfurt Book Fair with high recognition for their
incredible technical qualities. Around three-hundred different pieces of type are used in the first copies of the Gutenberg Bible and still utilized hand-painted ornaments to give the appearance of a traditional illuminated page. Only fourth-eight copies are known to still exist, twenty of which are complete.
This book undoubtedly encouraged much speculation and eventually led to his former business partner, Johann Faust, to sue Gutenberg for return of the money that was loaned to him to create his moveable type. Gutenberg lost the suit and it is believed that he was required to turn over most to all of his printing equipment to Faust. Not much about his life is known after this time other than that Gutenberg received a pension from the Archbishop of Mainz and lived the remainder of his life In his hometown of Mainz, Germany until his death in 1468. Though Gutenberg may not have reaped the financial benefits from his invention at the time, the moveable type and printing press led to the instrumental groundwork for future knowledge, education and technology.
“History of the Gutenberg Bible .” Gutenberg Bible History, Great Site Marketing , 2008,
Giges, Nancy. “Johannes Gutenberg.” ASME.org, May 2012, www.asme.org/engineering-
“Gutenberg Bible.” The British Library, The British Library, 16 Jan. 2015, www.bl.uk/collection-
The comic, by its definition and common concept, is an art form that is bound by tangible, specific limits. When we think of the word comic, the most defining trait of the genre that comes to mind is the panel: “a separate or distinct part of a surface[,] such as [a] comic strip,” or “a frame of a comic strip”. However, just because a story is portrayed in a medium with strict rules, this doesn’t mean that artists haven’t found inventive and thematically enriching ways to break these rules, shifting them to their advantage.
Osamu Tezuka, a prolific Japanese manga artist who authored many influential and renowned titles such as Astro Boy, Black Jack, and Phoenix during his lifetime, experiments heavily with the panels in his work. Tezuka often relies on a pattern in which the more thin, elongated panels reflect a shorter span of time; in this way, a scene with very quick changes in movement can be portrayed with a single page filled with numerous “snapshot” panels. Take, for example, this page from Tezuka’s The Book of Human Insects (read right to left):
Still relying on the iconography we have come to expect from his work, Tezuka now creates a two-page spread that forces the reader to slow down and take in the scope of this moment. Each panel, rotated from the short-and-wide shape we are used to, extends from the top to the bottom of the page, signalling that this page portrays a slow, still moment instead of a quick scene heavy with movement. Each panel shows the reflection of a pagoda in the water, and the scene changes only slightly from each image to the next. As readers, we are given plenty of time to observe and absorb not only the serene imagery and how it is disrupted, but the accompanying dialogue as well.
Tezuka is a master at his craft, visually enriching his works with many aspects not discussed here, such as the shape, placement, and weight in his panels, but his creation of time through each panel as a "scene" one might see in a film acts as a firm base on which his other exploratory techniques can shine through.
*Note: Due to differences in publisher translation, some examples are read from left to right.
Estebany Mejia del Valle
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg not only introduced Europe to movable type but to the printing press. Originally, Gutenberg was a gem cutter and a blacksmith which gave him the tools to move onto a more ambitious process of inventing the printing print. It was created in the Holy Roman Empire in 1436, later completed in 1440.
Andreas Dritzehn had been a gem cutting disciple of Gutenberg, partnered with him in the making of the printing press and was owner of a paper mill. Later, Gutenberg would lose the printing press under lawsuit related to a similar partnership of the press.
Regardless, his invention was not short of the printing press as he introduced oil-based ink in printing and a uniformity of type within the press. He was the first European to use movable type and was able to manifest a mass production systematical practice in printing based off of his creations.
This system of the printing press, oil-based ink, the introduction of moveable type and his mold for large, rapid production of metal type allowed for accessibility of the printing press. The printing press quickly became revolutionary and spread across Europe like wild fire.
The Printing Revolution happened shortly after which evoked a boom of fast, effective and accurate information being distributed across Europe via Gutenberg’s intention. This in turn led to the mass production of high-quality books that allowed for authors to become best sellers in all across Europe.
The press altered European society with its effectiveness in mass communication. Ultimately, it created a new form of media, the press and allowed for new social waves of nationalism to flow in.
Scientists were more readily able to distribute their breakthroughs able to spread these discoveries to the wider audience and amongst their own communities of scientists that began a scientific revolution.
Credibility was more valued within written works and press, who said what or whom discovered what became something of importance and it profited the individual.
By far the arguably most impactful is the increase in literacy, due to the more readily available, books it allowed for lower class citizens to reach higher education and literacy then before.
Gutenberg’s invention allowed for wide spread change across many communities of Europe and pushed breakthroughs into the society with communication and knowledge.
On June 22, 1956 Ann Hamilton was born. She was raised in Ohio and still lives there today with her husband, Michael Mercil, who is an artist as well. She graduated with a degree in textile design at the University of Kansas and an MFA in sculpture at Yale. She began to grow as a visual artist in the 1980’s and is known for her large-scale multimedia installations. She has also taught in the art department in California and in Ohio. Through her life she became fascinated with reading, the relationship between things, photography, and performance. "I read a lot of books. The reading is not only to gather information but looking for the way a thing is said. I don't have a studio. Reading is my main process when I'm not on site on a project” Ann Hamilton told Hunter Drohojowska-Philp. These elements that struck her interest, along with the talents from her degree, made her the wide ranged artist she is today.
In 1989, Ann Hamilton collaborated with Kathryn Clark for an installation called palimpsest, which was part of the larger exhibition “Strange Attractors: Signs of Chaos." The installation was created in two part, in two different rooms in the exhibition. In a display window facing outside The New Museum of Contemporary Art, the first display of palimpsest was shown. The walls were covered with block-printed texts that used shoe polish as ink. In the center, a tall stool was placed under a broken wire and a felt hat sat on the stool covered in beeswax and graphite. In the second room inside, the air was turned on high and the smell of the beeswax filled up the room. Covering the walls were small pieces of newsprint with memories written on them. With the air on high, these pieces of paper shook and fluttered. In the center of the room was a display case with 2 cabbages inside, slowing being eaten by snails. This installation was intended to show the visitors the loss of memory and the memories we experience.
In the summer of 1994, at the Ruth Bloom Gallery in Santa Monica, California, Ann Hamilton came out with a book series. Her performance piece, lineament, consisted only of plywood walls, a seat, table, light projector, and a woman cutting strips of text out of a prepared book and winding them, creating a ball of text. In front of the woman lays all of the balls of text on the table and the book she is cutting from. These balls turned into unfinished letters. “The piece aimed to link the process of breaking text and making it into a textile” (Drohojowska-Philp). This shows the process of an artist and the visitor can see the process through her silhouette on the wall from the projector. Before the installation, Ann Hamilton pre-cut the pages of the books into strips so they can just be torn out and balled together more easily during the installation. The act of destroying about 40 books to create something new is a bold statement; watching her do this over and over again enhances the meaning of it into something much greater.
Today, Ann Hamilton continues to share her talents today. Her most recent project, Side by Side, was shown at the Contemporary Textile Art Biennial in Guimarães, Portugal in 2018. Not only does she live for telling stories, but she aches to hear the stories of those that she crosses paths with.
Ann Hamilton studio. Web. 8 April 2019. https://www.annhamiltonstudio.com/projects/projects.html
"Ann Hamilton and Kathryn Clark: palimpsest." New Museum, 1989. Web. 8 April 2019. https://archive.newmuseum.org/exhibitions/2323
"Ann Hamilton." Art21. Web. 8 April 2019. https://art21.org/artist/ann-hamilton/
Drohojowska-Philp, Hunter. "ART : It Ain't Needlepoint : Ann Hamilton does old-fashioned women's work--ironing, weaving and knitting. But, if you're expecting Home Ec 101 from her installations, you'd better get out of the gallery." Los Angeles Times, 19 June 1994. Web. 8 April 2019. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1994-06-19-ca-5936-story.html
José Guadalupe Posada Aguilar was a Mexican political printmaker, engraver and a cartoonist when photo-mechanical technology was at its beginning stages. He was born in Aguascalientes Mexico, February 2, 1852 and died in January 20, 1913. His life can be divided into three stages: Aguascalientes 1852-1872; León 1872-1889 (with 1888 as a year of transition), Mexico City 1889-1913.
His work has influenced many Latin American artist because of his political messages and social engagement. He created art work with skulls also known as “calaveras”, and bones to make political and cultural critiques. Amongst his famous works one that is well known is the infamous “La Catrina”. Some of the Artist and muralist that he influenced amongst Mexico were Diego Rivera, Alfaro Siqueiros, Jose Clemente Orozco, Frida Kahlo and Jean Charlot. In 1925 Charlot wrote a “Revista de Revistas” article. Charlot thought the art of José Posada, was connective to Mexico’s history and influential to the modern Mexican art movement. Charlot had a working relationship with one of the most important muralist in Mexico which was Diego Rivera. I believe it is worth mentioning that Jean Charot painted a mural in the administration building at the time (1951), at Arizona State College (ASU) named “Hopi Snare Dance and Preparing Anti-Venom Serum”it measures 25 x 25 feet.
One of the key publications that highlighted Jose Posada was “Mexican Folkways” which was a Mexico City based magazine published from 1925-1937. The magazine was in Spanish and English and founder/publisher was Frances Toor. Jean Charlot was also her art editor from 1924-1926 and Diego Rivera, became the magazine's art editor in 1926. In the 1928 edition, with cover art by Rivera, the first significant article about José Guadalupe Posada appeared to have been written by Frances Toor.
Another great legacy that Jose Posada left was the inspiration to the creation of the “Taller Editorial de Gráfica” (Popularthe Printmaking workshop) which was founded in 1937 by a group of artists who had supported the goals of the Mexican Revolution. Its founders built off a rich tradition of printmaking in Mexico, particularly the legacy of Jose Posada.Additionally, the community of artists in which they associated and collaborated would have an influence on Posada’s growing notoriety thus, begins the resurrection of Posada in the 1920s after his death.
Many of the Mexican Muralist that rose out of the Mexican Revolution were inspired by the works of Posada. Some of the muralist traveled to different parts of the world such as Europe, South America, and America and created works with the same revolutionary spirit.
During the Franklin Roosevelt the New Deal was made to cultivate the U.S. economic health and one of the important pieces was to promote arts and culture. Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo were amongst the first artist from Mexico to be invited and create art works in the country. Diego Rivera created murals for the Rockefeller Center in New York, The Art Institute in San Francisco, and Detroit Institute of Arts Museum in Michigan to name a few. Alfaro Siqueiros was also invited also created political murals in California in what we know as the “Placita Olvera” on Olvera St in Downtown Los Angeles. The mural he created was named “America Tropicana” which was controversial at the time and was white washed. That mural was one of the murals that inspired muralist during the Chicano Renaissance in the 1960’s. Leading the biggest Mexican American art movements in U.S. history. Many of the artist that came from the Chicano Art movement were creating printmaking, public artwork, paintings, sculptures, photographs, political posters, for social justice. It is amazing to me to see the influence and impact that someone's art can have generations to come.
Felix González-Torres was a Cuban gay visual artist often working with minimalism and audience participation for installations. Themes within his work include the passing of time, time’s effects on human relationships, and overall his lived experience as a gay man during the AIDS crisis. Living with AIDS at the time was seen as a guaranteed death, and Torres successfully captured the feeling of fleeting time and death in his work.
In his untitled candy portrait series, Torres displays a mound of candy pieces that is the weight of loved ones. Two of which are of his lover, Ross Laycock. The purpose is for museum goers to pass by and take candy, until the pile dwindles to nothing. This can be read as the slow, steady effects of AIDS perishing the body, and the absence of one’s body and memories over time. Additionally, the act of being able to enjoy the candy and throw it away is representative of the queer community during AIDS crisis. Being aware and ignoring the issue led to death; the audience has responsibility of this when taking the candy.
Torres had another piece inspired by his lover Ross. “Untitled (Perfect Lovers)” (1991) features two standard clocks next to each other, eventually ticking out of sync, with one’s batteries eventually dying first. This again is a reflection of death and the passage of time. The clocks are in sync at first and for a while, but malfunction (death) is inevitable.
As much as Felix González-Torres’ work can be seen as reminders of death, it may also be reminders of life. Ideas of regeneration and the cycle of life come into play when these pieces that “die” are given life again; the candy is replenished, the clocks are fixed, etc.
One of his most notable pieces was “Untitled” (1991), which were billboards installed across New York City. It featured a black and white photo of an empty bed, impressions of someone who lied in it still present. This was a visual representation of the loss of his partner. The choice to make public art makes the art world more accessible, by not limiting it by class and who can afford to see it. It was placed throughout places like Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens, ultimately reaching a diverse audience.It also brings to light the issues surrounding the image and prompt questions to the viewer. Its lack of text and color forces it to stand out among advertisements usually seen on billboards. Whose bed is this? Why is it here? Why is it empty? Its quiet, minimalist nature feels foreign in a bustling city. It is a screenshot of intimacy.
To conclude, Felix González-Torres work varies across mediums but remains simple, clean, and thoughtful. He documents time and the human relationship with life and death in his work. His pieces hold narratives that were culturally relevant at the time and even today. Discussing and documenting his experience as a gay man during the AIDS epidemic successfully through minimalistic measures rightfully has given him a place in the modern art world. González-Torres died in 1996 due to AIDS, but his memory lives on through clocks, candy, paper stacks, and more.
by Miru Kim
The word 'family' is so close to most people's lives. When people think their family, their heart become warm. Sometimes people feel a sense of incomprehensibility, but there are special feeling that only through family members can feel. It is a love that can not be felt by others, even though it is love, pain, or conflict. When people watch family movies, they are touched by the movies as if they're seeing their own stories. Like the same as family movies, when people see family paintings, they are thinking and imaging the painting as their own family paintings. The family-themed painting reminds us of human affection that can not be felt in historical paintings, still-life paintings, and landscape paintings.
Ucchin Chang is regarded as a painter who painted a lot of family motifs in modern Korea. The theme of the family is a work created by contemporary Korean painters who worked with Ucchin. As a result of the Korean War, there was a social atmosphere in which the centrality of the family spread, but for some painters, the family itself was a force that led to life and art. It is also related to this social background that his theme is family. The family was the source of life and the source of creative inspiration for him. In view of the amount of work and the contents of the work, it is rare for painters to express family paintings close to life as much as him. While there are many pictures of his paintings remaining untitled, there are still some works named "A Family Portrait" (family tree), which shows his unmistakable affection for his family.
Ucchin Chang, A Family Portrait, 7.5x14.8cm, 1972
The theme of the family is also seen in the painting of Ucchin's <Village> painted in 1957.
Most of the material that Ucchin liked to appear in this painting which corresponds to the early works. The sun, mountains, trees, birds, cows, and dogs were portrayed as a family. The man with a mustache who looks like an artist himself and the family living in a crowded house in the lower part of the house are living peacefully and peacefully with animals expressing intimately.
Ucchin Chang, Village, 40.5×27.5cm, 1957
In 1976, "The Family" painted the family members outside the house. This painting features a screen composition and a simple expressive technique. It is a work of simplicity that comes from an unconventional composition rather than a formative inquiry that pursues a strong color contrast or a simple screen composition. Above all, on a special occasion, a composition makes a nostalgia, just like taking a memorial photo away from home.
Ucchin Chang, The Family, 13.7x17cm, 1976
In addition to the oil paintings that are considered as representative works of the family series, there are drawings that can find the love of Urchin's family. It is freehand drawing regardless of forms and materials. In 1972, when people see simple drawings of a family member drawn by a magic marker, people can feel the unfamiliar appearance of him. The drawing shows his view toward his family as a father rather than a painter. These drawings show simple, candid and warm wit for his family.
Ucchin Chang, drawings, 1972
Although the drawing took a short time to draw, it expresses only the characteristics of family members with a simple and clear line. It is a drawing that shows the intuition and painting characteristics of him. Freedom that is not tied to a particular material has transformed the magic marker into a material that expresses rich colors and vibrant paintings. The work attitude of Ucchin, who was alert to fixation in a certain frame when painting, overlaps with the attitude of life that has tried to have a more flexible and free mind.
Whenever I see Ucchin's family series, I think of my father who died seven years ago. Father always showed mercy and infinite love to his family, but he always had responsibility. I can not feel my father's love directly from him now, but I am comforted by the words and paintings that Ucchin did.
Ucchin Chang, a painter, said, "I love my family more than anyone else. The fact that love is understood through painting is different from the others. " But now I know that Jang 's family love is not different from our family love. His painting is a language of love that anyone can understand.
- Chang Ucchin Museum of Art Yangju City (2014), Chang Ucchin, p.66, p.67, p.75
By Cassandra Contreras
The 16th century was known as the century of great herbals when the dedicated study of herbalism flourished. This allowed for many books to be created based on fieldwork and scientific fact. At around 1507, a German physician and botanist, Leonhart Fuchs, began his greatest work, unbeknownst at the time, that would take 35 years to make and it would make him known as “The Third of the German Fathers of Botany (Glasgow, 2002).” During his 35-year span of research, he studied about 497 plants, jotting down their uses, descriptions, and medicinal purposes as well as borrowing research from previous herbals. During this time, Fuchs also grew all of these plants in his own garden, which allowed him to first-hand observe them. This let him create the most accurate drawings of these plants that anyone had ever seen before. Before his first-hand observation, a lot of illustrations of plants in herbals were inaccurate due to people using the same images for various plants or mislabeling them since a lot of people had never actually seen them.
In 1542, Fuchs research was published in Basel, Switzerland by Michael Isingrin as the Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes (Notable Commentaries on the History of Plants). An herbal of 896 pages which contained over 511 woodcut illustrations that were illustrated by Albercht Meyer, the illustrations were transferred to woodblocks by Heinrich Füllmaurer, and they were cut and printed by Rudolph Speckle. The book was first published in Latin and Greek, but it was quickly published to German. “During Fuchs' lifetime, the herbal and its various abridgments went through 39 printings in Latin, German, French, Spanish, and Dutch (Stanford University Press, n.d).” It wasn’t until 20 years after he died that it was finally published in English. All of the plants in all editions are organized alphabetically by their Greek names.
This book brought a lot of firsts for its time. It became known as the best-illustrated book of all time by the Stanford University Press, it is regarded as the most beautiful of all printed herbals, and it is the most accurate for identification purposes. It is the very first book to ever publish about plants from the Americas like pumpkin, maize, marigold, potatoes, tobacco, and chili peppers were described for the first time in this book. It is also the very first book to illustrate over 100 species of plants for the first time and the first to include portraits of both the author and the illustrators. Later on, a smaller pocket-sized version of this book was created to improve on the identification of plants out in the field.
As of today, there are only 150 surviving copies, where 54 of them are hand-colored copies of the first edition and 2 of them are a handsome boxed set. The last recorded book to be sold was in 1997 and it was sold for $17,000. Both the University of Cambridge’s Digital Library and the Smithsonian Library provide a digital copy of this book to the public. These digital copies show the beauty of both books in two forms. The University of Cambridge’s copy is a hand painted copy of the book that was donated by King George I, while the Smithsonian’s copy is a regular copy that has not been hand painted.
This research is formulated around the narration of pillows, the historical materials used in it’s aesthetic make-up, and how it has been conceptualized in the contemporary art world today. Though the pillow is used as a universal comforting object, the history of pillows and its cultural differences may shock you.
We can find the oldest pillows date back to around 7,000 BC in ancient Mesopotamia. Made of stone the pillow becomes anything, but comforting compared to our fluffy pillows today (inspired after the Greeks and Romans). Though they might have kept the bugs away, the idea of sleeping on a cold stone seems torturous, depending on how tired you are. In Egypt they were made out of wood, carved with hieroglyphics, and illustrated with depictions of gods to keep away bad spirits.
In China they used many different materials from wood, jade bamboo and ceramic. The different materials were believed to hold some healing effect upon the sleeper. Jade’s hard surface was used to heighten the sleepers intellect. Where soft pillows were believed to steal a person’s energy from them. Ceramic pillows take further consideration into aesthetics. The ornate figures and forms holding up the structure was used as a symbol to portray a person’s status. China painting was used to decorate and illustrate the forms further.
This ceramic pillow, from the Jin Dynasty, illustrates a poem. ‘The wind rustles flowers under a snow white moon’. The decoration was clearly meant to be seen and discussed, even though placed in an intimate and private area.Most of the ceramic pillows from this era were of lounging women. Never would a man be caught lounging
This cizhou ceramic pillow was illustrated in a manner the appropriated the domesticated gender rolls. It’s this specific narration of the pillows that I am focused on in my research. A woman owned this pillow to remind them of their maternal roll in the bedroom. The pillow being associated with a women and a feminist views on contemporary culture today. The activities of a woman’s marital role has change in the past hundred years. Even the maternal expectations of a young women getting pregnant has changes. All of these topics of conversations were once pointedly illustrated on these ceramic pillows. Though the feminist research of pillows related to a feminist identity is a continuation of my work it is still something I am learning about. This current research leads me into talking about, the context behind the body of a pillow used in other artist working in the contemporary arts.
. Mika Negishi Laidlaw is a Japanese, artist who specializes in complex ceramics. Her ceramic pillows capture a surreal weightlessness to the physical body of the material and form. The contradiction to our minds eye. Her work primarily centers around this idea of “Unconditional Love” and “Memory of Cells”. The time she had spent nurturing and caring for her children is a strong relations to the form and figure of her work. These ceramic pillows balancing onto of each other and embracing these colorful organic forms clearly demonstrates this. I wonder if Mika realizes that the historical background of the chinese ceramic pillows has a strong relationship to her current work. In that the ceramic pillow was used to illustrate a woman’s nurturing maternal role.
By Ren Ta
Dó paper is Vietnamese traditional hand-made paper that first presented itself to Vietnam in the 3rd century; however, its origins began in the 13th century. It is a resilient, chemical-free paper, that is so durable, it could last up to 800 years. This type of paper was commonly used in Vietnamese folk art, with such artists like the legendary painter Dong Ho as a user of this paper. Since the rapid industrialization and urbanization that has been continually occurring in Vietnam, the craft of traditional paper making has halted. The lack of desire for this process of papermaking has created a project to inform the community about the art of this paper. The Zo project has really brought back the cultural dynamics of papermaking and informed many on the ethnical ties that this paper has to the Vietnamese culture.
Dó paper is made from the bark of the Rhamnoneuron balansae tree, which the Vietnamese call the Dó tree found in the Northern parts of Vietnam. Behind the paper itself, there is a process of over 100 steps to get it to be the paper that it is. However, the modern day process has made it attainable within ten steps. Since this process is made of all raw material, those materials have to be collected, harvested, and steamed. After that, the bark of the Dó tree is boiled with a 12% lime solution and continuously mixed. From there, the bark is then beaten by an oak stick so that the fibers could be loosened. Onwards, the pulp from the beating, water, and "mo" are throughly stirred into a mixture, in which the mixture would be shaken back and forth evenly on a bamboo screen (liềm seo). The water from the pulp would then be drained and repeated for a desired thickness. Finally, the water should be all pressed out, sheets should be stripped apart, and left to dry out in the sun. The paper could also be colored by fresh plants as well.
Now-a-days, the Dó paper is at risk of extinction. Modern day urbanization and the shortage of Dó sets back the already so rare production of Dó paper. On top of that, Dó paper is only seasonally produced because it is only good to harvest in between August and October when the bark strips itself away from the tree. What once used to employ a whole village of people is now the labor of only two important families that are willing to keep the tradition of heritage alive, Mr. Pham Van Tam and Mrs. Nguyen Thi Huong being one of those families have more than 20 varieties of Dó paper in their store. They reside in the Bac Ninh province, famously known as Phong Khe village. This village is now being taken over for industrial paper production, resulting in the lessening of Dó paper.
Dong Ho painting called "Rat Wedding" His traditional folk paintings usually include every-day activities and farmers religious routines painted on Dó paper.
Dó paper being flattened out by shaking back and forth on the bamboo screen.
The five major philosophical schools in ancient China
Confucianism is the most influential school in ancient China. As a manifestation of the inherent value system of China, Confucianism is not an academic or a school in the usual sense.
Confucianism has a profound influence on Chinese culture. For thousands of years, the society has taught the four books and the Five Classics. The traditional sense of responsibility, moderation, and loyalty and filial piety are the result of the combination of Confucianism and authoritarian rule. Therefore, Confucianism is the mainstream thought along with the contemporary.
The Legalist is a political spokesperson for civilians during the Warring States Period. As a major faction, they have put forward the ideas and concepts of the rule of law that still have far-reaching influence. This is easy to see that they pay great attention to the legal system and the law, using law as a kind of compulsory tool for organizing social rule. These ideas embodying the construction of the legal system, have been used until now, and have become the main ruling means for the centralists to stabilize social unrest. The birth of contemporary Chinese law is influenced by the thought of Legalism. The legalist, cultural, and moral constraints of a country are still very strong, and the impact on the modern legal system is also profound.
In the Spring and Autumn Period time, Laozi gathered the wisdom of the ancient sages. Taoist sums up the essence of ancient Taoist thoughts and forms a moral theory of "doing nothing for nothing", which indicates that Taoist thought has been formally formed.
Taoism takes "Tao" as the core, believes that Heaven and Taoism is inaction, advocates Taoism and nature, and proposes political and military strategies such as inaction, female protects male, use softness to fight with doughty.
It is one of the most important philosophical schools in China is in the cultural fields of China and has a tremendous impact on the culture of China and the world. A large number of Chinese and foreign scholars have begun to notice and draw on the positive thoughts of Taoism. Therefore, scholars say: "Taoism can be seen as a great product of the Chinese nation. It is the center of national thought, and there are many people who see it as a benevolent person. It is said that the people use it without knowing the temperament."
The main ideas of the Mohist School are: equal love among people, opposition to war of aggression, promotion of thrifty, inherit the cultural wealth of predecessors, master the natural law and so on.
Because of the unique political attributes of the Mohist thought, and the official and collusive policies of the Western Han Dynasty Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, "the slogan of the unique Confucianism", the Mohist family was constantly suppressed and gradually lost the realistic foundation of the existence of the Mohist thoughts; At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, scholars re-excavated the Mohist family from the pile of paper, and found its progressiveness. In recent years, through the efforts of many new ink-makers, the Mohist theory has recovered, and it has shown its potential for progress.
The military family is a school that studied military theory in China in the early Qin and early Han dynasties and engaged in military activities. It is the essence of the ancient Han military thought. One of the hundred families. According to the "Han·Yi Wen Zhi" records, the military family is divided into four categories: military power, military situation, soldiers, yin and yang, and military skill. Representatives of the military family include Sun Wu and Sima Yi in the Spring and Autumn Period, Sun Wei, Wu Qi, Yan, Zhao Lux, Bai Qi, Han Liang, Zhang Han, Han Xin, etc. Today, there are military books such as "The Art of War", "Sun Bing's Art of War", "Wu Zi", "Six ", "Xunzi" and so on. The military family's works are rich in naive materialism and dialectic thinking.
Sophistry, or debate itself, is a methodology. More precisely, the debate is a method of argumentation. Its fundamental feature is a distorted argument. The sophistry is different from arbitrary and rumors. There is no reason at all for arbitrariness. People treat it as a strong word; rumors are made out of nothing, sounds malicious. However, when being argued about its truth, it always needs a lot of "bases" to prove it. So, it can always confuse people.
Famous Debate Stories:
You Are Not a Fish
Zhuangzi and his friend Hui Shi walked on a bridge in Surabaya.
Zhuangzi looked at the squid in the water and said, "The squid is leisurely in the water. This is the joy of the fish."
Keiko said: "You are not a fish, how do you know the happiness of the fish?"
Zhuangzi said: "You are not me, how do you know that I don't know the happiness of the fish?"
Keiko said: "I am not you, I didn't know you. You are not a fish. You don't know the happiness of the fish. It is completely OK."
Zhuangzi said: "Please return to the topic we started. You said: 'Where do you know the happiness of the fish', etc., I already know that I know the joy of the fish and ask me, I know it on the banks of the Lishui River. "
White Horse is not a Horse (sophistry)
Guest: Can you say that white horse is not a horse?
Gong Sunlong: Yes.
Gong Sunlong: "Horse" is the regulation of the "shape" of the object, and "White Horse" is the regulation of the "color" of the horse. The regulations on the "color" and the prescriptiveness on the "shape" are obviously different. Therefore, the result of different regulations on different concepts, white horse and horse are also different.
Guest: Here is a white horse. It cannot be said that no horse is here. Since it can't be said that there is no horse, then isn't the white horse a horse? Since there are white horses called horses, why are white horses not horses?
Gong Sunlong: If you ask for a "horse", both the yellow horse and the black horse can meet the requirements; if you ask for a "white horse", the yellow horse and the black horse cannot meet the requirements. If the white horse is a horse, then asking for a horse is exactly the same as asking for a white horse. However, if there is no difference between asking for a horse and asking for a white horse, then why do yellow horses and black horses sometimes agree to have horses instead of agreeing to have white horses? "Since you can promise to have a horse and you can't promise a white horse." This clearly shows that asking for a "horse" is completely different from asking for a "white horse." Therefore, the same yellow horse or black horse can promise to have a horse, and can not promise a white horse. "This is to say that the original "White Horse is a horse" hypothesis cannot be established." Therefore, "white horse is different from horse" is a clear truth.
Guest: As you can see, it is different from a horse to have a color. But there are no colorless horses in the world. So, can you say that horses with colors in the world are not horses?
Gong Sunlong: Ma has a color, so there is a white horse. If the horse has no color, there is only a "horse". How can it be called a white horse? However, the horse that stipulates that the horse is white is different from the "horse". The so-called white horse is limited to white, and the horse that is limited to white is different from the horse. Therefore, the white horse is not a horse.
Guest: Ma, is a horse that is not limited by "white"; white is white that is not limited by "horse". It is certainly not possible to combine the two concepts of white and horse to define and become a new concept to call an unrestricted concept. Therefore, it is wrong to think that a white horse is not a horse.
Gong Sunlong: As you can see, there are horses in the white horse, but can you say "Is there a yellow horse in the white horse?"
Guest: Of course you can't say that.
Gong Sunlong (the answerer again): Since acknowledging that "there is a difference between having a horse and having a yellow horse" is to distinguish the yellow horse from the horse. This means that the yellow horse is not a horse; since the yellow horse is separated from the horse Come, instead of equating the white horse with the horse, isn’t this just a bird that sinks into the water and makes it so funny in the West? This is a complete logical mess.
Gong Sunlong: I think that there is no white horse to say that there is no horse. This is not to consider the "white horse" but the horse shape. However, "White Horse" is a concept of "cannot be separated" with horses. Therefore, the concept of a white horse cannot be called a horse. Therefore, what is called a "horse" is simply called a horse in the shape of a horse, but cannot be called a horse in a white horse. Therefore, the concept of a horse is not a concept of any specific colored horse.
White is not limited to the whiteness of any kind of thing. The specific thing does not hinder the essence of "white" as "white", so it can be ignored. White horse is a horse limited to white. White (such as white horses) limited to specific things is different from abstract, general "white." "The same reason", "horse" is not limited to which color, so yellow horses and black horses can count; white horses are limited to white horses, yellow horses and black horses have "white horses" Different colors can't count. Therefore, only White Horse can count. "In other words, only White Horse can agree to the concept of "White Horse". Both Huang Ma and Dark Horse can't agree with the concept of "White Horse". The concept of unqualified is different from the concept of being limited. So, there is a difference between white horse and horse.
Divide Strength and White
I can't see the stone's strength, I can only see the white color of the stone, so "no strength". My hand can't feel the white color of the stone, it can only feel the stone's strong, so "no white"; when you see white, you can't feel its Strength, when I can't see the white, I feel strong, seeing and not seeing, and the result is separated. It is inferred that the "strength" and "white" in the "stone" cannot coexist, so they are separated from each other.
Art has a unique power to bring abstract scientific concepts into a tangible experience. I am interested in presenting my research and imagery from this semester as an interactive installation in which the participants learn about the topics and are then given a chance to practice what they have learned. Borrowing from examples of scientific studies and psychological art works, I plan to spend next semester building a show that is both educational and experiential.
Last summer I was fortunate enough to encounter Ozge Samanci’s and Gabriel Caniglia’s You Are the Ocean in SIGGRAPH’s Art Gallery:
“A participant wears an EEG (Electroencephalography) headset that measures the user’s approximate attention and meditation levels via brain waves. Through relaxation and concentration, the subject can control the water and sky.”*
Controlling the landscape through brainwaves was an incredible and impactful experience, but I have since been dreaming of how much more impactful it would be to watch a real-time rendering of another’s emotional response as I attempt to empathize with them. I recently discovered Guto Requena’s Mapped Empathy, a large, CNC structure with projected light and sound that maps the heartbeats of interactors:
“In each session, guests’ heartbeats are recorded in real time at the touch of a finger via sensors installed on the bench. This vital data is sent to speakers and lights that transform the architecture into a large sculpture of emotions. At the beginning of the session every individual heartbeat can be heard, and then they gradually mix and transform into a symphony driven by the vibrant pulse of life.”**
The artist was inspired by the quote, “empathy is feeling with the heart of another.”**
The combined concepts and techniques of You Are the Ocean and Mapped Empathy reminded me of one of my favorite studies on validation and emotional state. In a 2011 social experiment conducted by Allan Fruzzetti and Chad Shenk, participants were divided into two groups and were all given math problems that appeared easy but were actually impossible to solve. Stress levels were measured before the participants were given the problems and then after solving the problems was attempted, via EEG. As would be expected, stress levels rose as the participants became frustrated with the task. Participants in both groups were asked how they were doing by the test administrator; they generally responded to indicate frustration and anxiety. The test administrator in one group assured participants that everyone got stressed and their emotional responses were normal, while the administrator in the other group told participants that their responses were unusual and most people found the problems easy. Stress levels were measure by EEG once again: the stress of the validated group began to drop closer to the levels before the task was presented, but stress levels of the invalidated group continued to rise. Validation/empathy acted to regulate the heightened emotional state and give the stressed person the ability to be calm.***
Next semester I plan to use this research as inspiration for an interactive installation that will allow participants to learn empathy and validation techniques, practice what they learned by listening to the stories of a fellow participant, and see real time renderings of how their empathy and validation (or non-empathy and invalidation) affect the emotional state of the other.
This research is focused on Bruce Licher, who is a musician, artist, entrepreneur, and designer currently based in Sedona, Arizona. Licher was originally born in Los Angeles where he attended the UCLA Fine Arts Department and studied various art forms such as film, photography, silk screen printing, and sculpture. But while his pieces often reflect the work of a graphic designer, Bruce never studied graphic design. After graduating college, he got his start in professional printing at the Women’s Graphic Center. There, he took a letterpress class learning how to create album covers for his own band SAVAGE REPUBLIC. Licher was able to combine two of his passions and from there, he turned to printing a variety of things such as postcards, record sleeves/jackets, and so on (Licher Art and Design, n.d.). He was commissioned by many bands, especially underground LA bands.
Following his education at the Women’s Graphic Center, in 1982, he founded the Independent Project Press (IPR) as both a record label and art experiment. Over the years he has created album covers, postcards, promotional stamps, stationary, invitations, wine labels, promotional booklets, and much more. On several occasions, Licher has also collaborated with his wife who is a visual artist. Everything produced in the Independent Project Press is printed on the Chandler and Price Platen presses or the Vandercook 219 Power Proofing Press. The shop also contains a vintage Rosback pinhole perforator and other various antique type, ornaments, paper cutters corner rounders, and sequential numbering machines. Along with that, many projects at the Independent Project Press are created from digital files that are made into magnesium, copper, or photo-polymer plates for printing on one of the many presses. (Licher, n.d.)
Bruce is well known in the letterpress community and one of the reasons he is so widely recognized as Richard Kegler says is “Bruce Licher’s Independent Project Press is a contemporary studio that has bridged technological eras and produced an unparalleled body of work. It has culled from the past while simultaneously turning it on its head with a distinct visual vocabulary that continues to influence current aesthetics” (Richard Kegler, n.d.) His graphic design and letterpress printing work has been featured “in two exhibits at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York City -- the "Mixing Messages: Graphic Design in Contemporary Culture" show in 1996, and the first "National Design Triennial: Design Culture Now" show in Spring of 2000” (Licher Art and Design, n.d.).
While Bruce’s style has evolved over the years, his work is most well-known by the chipboard and metallic inks he prints with which has become his signature style. It is important to note that printing on chipboard is in no way consistent as it is made from recycled materials and thus every sheet may be different in shade, color, or texture. These inconsistencies with the chipboard make Licher’s trademark printing even more unique as each and every piece is truly different. (Yardumian, 2016). This approach to design and printing can be traced to the constructivists, dadaists, and most specifically to HN Werkman (Heller, 2018). For this signature design of his he has been nominated twice for a Grammy for his album packing. Lastly, while many trends go uncredited to the original artist, Bruce is recognized for starting the trend of using letterpress printing on chipboard.
Heller, S. (2018, April 26). Bruce Licher: Letterpress Hero. Retrieved April 5, 2019, from https://www.printmag.com/daily-heller/bruce-licher-letterpress-hero/
Kegler, R. (n.d.). Savage Impressions: The Book. Retrieved April 5, 2019, from https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/p22/savage-impressions-the-book
Licher Art & Design. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2019, from http://www.licherartanddesign.com/index.php/about/
Licher, B. (n.d.). Independent Project Press. Retrieved April 5, 2019, from https://www.independentprojectpress.com/
Raggett, N. (2013, June 24). Interview: Savage Republic’s Bruce Licher. Retrieved April 5, 2019, from http://daily.redbullmusicacademy.com/2013/06/bruce-licher-interview
Yardumian, A. (2016, February 15). An Interview with Bruce Licher – Prolegomenon. Retrieved April 5, 2019, from http://www.timesquotidian.com/2016/02/15/an-interview-with-bruce-licher-prolegomenon
Named after one of the book’s many owners, Wilfrid Voynich, The Voynich Manuscript is a 9x6 inch vellum codex that dates between 1404 and 1438. (1) It is partially damaged with 240 of 272 pages intact, but is otherwise in readable condition. It was hypothesized the book is a type of medicinal guide due to its illustrations of plants, zodiac charts, and various images of women bathing. This manuscript is a famous cryptography case due to its mysterious writing system, only becoming partially deciphered last year. Up until then, armature cryptographers and WW1 and WW2 code breakers have not been able to decipher the text.
The text remains infamous for its many wild hypotheses: was it written by aliens or part of a government conspiracy? Or was the language was completely fabricated by its author? Guesses for its language include Latin, medieval Hebrew, Malay, Arabic, and Amharic. (2)
After hundreds of years of mystery, Amet Ardic, a Canadian researcher, claims the text resembles the Turkish language from his home country and was “written in a poetic, rhythmic method called "Phonemic Orthography" which describes speech visually” (3). Working with his son, he was able to translate one of the manuscript’s many astronomical calendar pages. Months like November are roughly translated into modern Turkish as “Seper Ayi” meaning “moon of rain”.
Folio 67-R depicting the 12 months as a type of astronomical calendar.
Folio 33-v (which depicts two blue blooming flowers surrounded by text) was successfully translated; here are some notable portions:
“…the head of the plant becomes heavy and bends its head to a side and might surprisingly split the stalk.” In the accompanying illustration, you can see a wilting flower below the right flower.
“The taste of the first fruits (nuts) and the attractive appearance of the ornamented crown captivates those buying the plant and takes full control of the buyer (impressing), for even the dying person will remain impressed.”
“The harvester (farmer) cuts the spikes and fills the bag and barn. The buyer weighs it and feels heart warmed (satisfied).” (4)
Folio 33-V depicting three blue flowers, one of them wilted and hidden
Combined “P” and “L” making a visual representation of an “eep” sound, which translates into Turkik as “rope”. The visual depiction is rope-like. The word below translates to “measurements”, meaning the whole word is “rope measurements”.
However, Ardic’s research isn’t free from criticism. It is hypothesized that the manuscript draws from multiple languages, not just Turkish. Another team of Canadian researchers approached this book, this time with AI and Google Translate to help. Using a manmade computer algorithm, the researchers were able to identify 80% of the sampled manuscript pages as Hebrew. When it came time to decipher the phrases, they relied on Google Translate with some luck. However, because the text is written in some form of Medieval Hebrew, and not Modern Hebrew, there is more room for error. The goal of this study was to specifically pinpoint the code and language used in the Voynich Manuscript, not to translate the entire book.
What could be translated and observed by studying the scrip’s illustrations reveals this text is most likely women’s health guide and herbiary. Major portions of the book are dedicated to illustrations of plants that have been identified as “native to or cultivated in the Mediterranean region, in particular, Italy”. (5) Though some of these illustrations have fantasy elements (the roots of the plant in folio 90-V are cats’ bodies), it can be understood that it is some sort of plant guide. The illustrations of round women bathing in green liquid leave more to the imagination, however.
In this research, I would like to talk about some history of binding books in China. As is known to all, China is a country with an ancient civilization. The records of letters appeared as early as 4000 years ago. These letters revolved over a thousand years into the Chinese we use now. Printing, paper making and bindi8ng also evolved over thousands of years. Throughout the history pf the spread of Chinese characters, from oracle to the present, the way of communication has gone through many forms such as oracle bones, bronze, bamboo, silk, carving stones, rubbings, writing and printing. Among them, the oracle bones, bronze and stone carving can be seen the predecessor of books. However, they are not book and they do not have binding.
Jian ce binding is the earliest binding method in the true sense of China. it is a book made of bamboo and wood with holes in it. And all the pieces were connected by ropes. The title was putted in the back of the last bamboo piece. When the Jian ce was rolling up, we can see the title above the book. This kind of binding form were used during Shang and Zhou dynasties. When the paper was made and used in the book, this binding form was replaced by other binding forms.
Then, scroll binding and folded binding went into the history. Scroll binding form consists of four parts, namely, scroll, scroll, and belt. It is similar to Jian ce binding with different materials. The head of a roll is usually attached to a piece of paper or silk called "float", which is tough and unwritten. The head is then tied with a silk "band" to protect and bind the scroll. This kind of binding always used in binding drawing and writing works. Folded binding is a long scroll, along the book space, one back and one positive fold, forming a rectangular fold. The first and last two pages of hard paper binding form. It is totally different from the two binding forms I wrote before. It seems much like the books now. The ancient Buddhists, perhaps influenced by the Buddhist sutra binding from India, prefer to use the folded folder binding.
Then the butterfly binding and back binding appeared. These two binding methods were similar. Butterfly binding is the predecessor of back binding. In the process of long-term reading, the connected part of folding books is often broken. After breaking, there is a situation of one page and one page, which gives people enlightenment, and gradually appears the bookbinding system with pages. It appeared in the late tang dynasty and prevailed in the song dynasty. It is a binding form in which the leaves of the book are arranged according to the middle slit, the printed side is turned in and folded in half. Then the middle slit is used to align the pages of the book, stick to another wrapping paper with paste, and finally cut into a book. When people reading these kind of books, the pages just like butterfly and this is the origin of its name. However, people found that this kind of binding will make book has many white pages. Then, they change the direction of the fold. And this kind of binding is back binding.
Finally, line binding appeared. It is a binding form in which the pages are bound together with the front and back over. It used in the recent hundreds of China.
I really consider the traditional bindings are so amazing and they can bring me ideas to mix them with new things.
A book called: 《中华印刷通史》
Xu Bing was born in Chongqing China in 1955. His mother was a librarian and his father was the head of the history department at Peking University. In 1975 the Cultural Revolution was coming to an end in China. As a part of Mao Zedong's "re-education" policy he was moved into the countryside and forced to work as a sign painter making propaganda.This experience eventually became the foundation to the work he would make. In 1977 he returned to Beijing and enrolled in the Central Academy of Fine Art to study printmaking. He earned his masters in 1987, and later in 1990, moved to the United States because of the pressure being put on artists after Tiananmen Square. He lived in the States until being appointed the new vice president of the China Central Academy of Fine Arts in 2008.
Xu Bing often uses calligraphy and sculpture in his work to explore his experiences with communication. He is most known for his piece Tianshu or Book from the Sky. This installation was made of rows of hanging scrolls that filled a room. On these scrolls were over 4,000 character that he had designed to look like like Chinese text but were actually meaningless.
Another piece he is known for is New English Calligraphy, a projected he started after living in the United States for four years. He designed characters that were made to look like Chinese but are actually made out of English words. He then gave lessons on how to write in these characters. When New English Calligraphy is displayed he often uses nursery rhymes to give an example.
Xu Bing started his tobacco projects when he was invited to be the artist-in-residence at Duke University in 2000. He was interested in the Duke Family history which led him to tobacco. This led to a series of work using cigarettes, and tobacco. The most known of these is a tiger skin rug made from around a half a million cigarettes. Tiger-skin rugs are a symbol go human dominance. “It confirms our superiority by transforming one of nature’s fiercest predators into a lifeless skin beneath our feet.” Xu Bing also compares the way fur and skin rugs can glamorize hunting with the way smoking can often be glamorized. Other projects that were a part of this series included prints on tobacco leaves, a tree with branches made of matches, and a compressed cube of tobacco with the words “light as smoke” on the top o
What is paper clay? Paper clay is “any clay with processed cellulose fibre added” (1). Paper clay can be purchased with fiber already added, or the fiber can be beaten and added to already processed slips. There are many benefits of using paper clay over regular processed clays. A few of those benefits may include overall structural strength, less changes of warping, as well as the ability for it to be pushed super thin, aiding in creating translucent porcelain. The best part, paper fiber can be added to any type of clay, earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. But is most effective when added to porcelain due to its ability to reduce warping at such a high scale, and is used most for repair and attaching parts.
To make paper clay, a cellulose fiber is required. Most paper fibers will work just fine. Recycled paper such as newspaper and regular printer paper can be used, even purchasing a sheet of cotton linter or already processed fiber works just as well. One advantage of using purchased cotton linter is the lack of printer ink or dye that may be added to recycled papers, they also do not rot the clay as fast. Since fiber is a natural material, rotting can/will occur. Using types of paper such as toilet paper will result in rotting of the clay in as little as a couple hours, this is due to the starch that is added to toilet paper, with promotes the growth of mold. Although, the mold can be killed with a small amount of bleach added to the mix. It has been recommend to use spay insulation due to its strength, and due to the way it is sold, it will help cut down on time that would be required to break down the fiber yourself. (2) Although, these cellulose fibers that are within spray insulation contain borax and boron, which is used to reduce the fire hazard from home insulation. Borax acts as a flux, which helps to reduce the melting point in most glaze chemicals, but when added to a clay body, reduced the maturity point of the fired clay (1). This often resells in slipping of the form. After the paper and slip mixture is created, it is added to plaster to help remove access water and dry out to the point of use. This method of creating paper clay can easily be applied to crating a casting slip. Since you would already be making a slip prior to adding any fiber. This fibrous slip can be poured directly into a plaster mold and cast to create a very strong and thin form. (2)
To my surprise, there are quite a few artist who work with paper clay. It does not come as a suprise to me to find that these artist also have worked with paper processes such as hand made paper and book arts. Carol Farrow is one of those artist who worked with both making paper and paper clay. Her work with paper very closely resembles her work with the paper clay.
Jerry Bennett has created a way of making paper clay that is very simple and has been made available to the public. This is his website: http://jerrybennett.net/category/blog/. Also, here are some more images of paper clay works by artist: Sara Ransford, Angela Mellor, Nathalie Domingo, and Jerry Bennett, as well as others.
Overall, I believe paper clay can be a very useful material. With paper clay making porcelain a stronger clay, with less of a chance or warping, I can see many applications of this and possibilities in the future. Thought my research I have discovered a love for paper clay and a desire to work with it myself. With my background is ceramics and my familiarity with paper making, this might be something I see myself doing in the future.
(1) Http://www.grahamhay.com.au/paperclay.html. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.grahamhay.com.au/paperclay.html#.W-ulDXpKjMI
(2) How to Make Paper Clay. (2018, August 02). Retrieved November 13, 2018, from https://ceramicartsnetwork.org/daily/ceramic-supplies/pottery-clay/make-paper-clay/
Tardio-Brise, L. (n.d.). PAPERCLAY. Retrieved November 13, 2018, from http://www.terrepapier.com/paperclay-en.php
Carol Farrow: http://www.carolfarrow.net
Sara Ransford: http://pyrogirlaspen.com
Angela Mellor: http://www.angelamellor.com
Nathalie Domingo: http://nathaliedomingo.com
Jerry Bennett: http://jerrybennett.net/
Chris Campbell: http://www.ccpottery.com
Thérèsa Lebrun: http://www.wcc-bf.org/membre/lebrun-thérèse
By Chayna Truex
Illuminated Manuscripts are a type of book form that was used primarily during the middle ages. The word ‘manuscript’ was taken from the Latin term ‘manus scriptus’ which means ‘handwritten’. This term refers to the creation of illuminated manuscripts and the painstaking process of making these books by hand. Illuminated manuscripts date back to the 4th century the earliest being the Vergilius Augusteus which is only seven pages and many scholars believe it to be from a larger recreation of Virgil’s literature. The manor of creating illuminated manuscripts had changed significantly over the years. One can see the shift in its creation through the work of, the Ambrosian Iliad that dates back to the 5th century CE, an illuminated manuscript that details Homer’s work. Though technically this work is used to signify the shift to what many of us know as the medieval version of illuminated manuscripts; which use colors like gold, silver, and make use of bold lettering. We know a great amount about the creation of illuminated manuscripts due to their popularity though very few have survived today. It was until the 13th century that illuminated manuscripts were primarily created by monks in a place called a scriptorium. Scriptoriums were rooms that were used strictly for the many processes of creating illuminated manuscripts such as the writing, copying, binding, and illuminating of these books. The creations of illuminated manuscripts was a huge group effort that could take from months to years to finish depending on the level of detail. The materials used in the creation of illuminated manuscripts is a bit different than what we would use in our modern books today. Illuminated manuscripts were written on animal skins until around 1450 BCE and were referred to as parchment or vellum. After the parchment was done it was then ruled or scored, so the scribe was able to write in straight lines. They then used lead based or colored ink and used a quill pen, taken from a goose or swan. The illumination was done by embellishing the drawings done by the quill, by painting over it with gold leaf. They would then use substances such as bole, which is a red clay, or sap to make the material stick. It was during this process that the illuminator would then mix pigments and add the rest of the colors to the drawing. The last process in creating the illuminated manuscript was the binding where they would fold together the parchment pages and sew them together using leather cords. They would then lace together supports taken from wood boards and cover the book in a leather binding.
Illuminated manuscripts are still a significant piece of book history and are still looked on today due to the amount of detail that was put into them. It is because of painstaking process in their creation that cause them to be studied by scholars today to understand the importance of art in the middle ages during a time before we had printing presses. It is easy for us to see today why these books were major symbols of art. “People often don’t realize that the greatest artists, the finest artists, of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance are illuminated manuscripts” (Samplers).
Mark, Joshua J. “Illuminated Manuscripts.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 13 Nov. 2018, www.ancient.eu/Illuminated_Manuscripts/.
Samplers, Dropcloth, et al. “How Illuminated Manuscripts Were Created During the Middle Ages.” My Modern Met, 10 Mar. 2018, mymodernmet.com/how-to-make-medieval-illuminated-manuscripts/.
Wight. “An Introduction to Illuminated Manuscripts by the British Library.” The British Library, The British Library, 25 Aug. 2005, www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/TourIntroGen.asp